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Rabu, 30 Juli 2014

RINGKASAN GRAMMAR


GRAMMAR REVIEW ONE (by toni comara)
1.
PRESENT TENSE



Merupakan kegiatan yang biasa dilakukan ket waktu al. dengan every
He , she ,it dengan Verb s . You We They dengan V pertama.
Kalimat negatip. He , she , it dengan does not. You We They dengan do not
Contoh 1 : Toni (he) swims  with his friend everyday—Toni does not swim with.......
(ingat pada kalimat negatip setelah pakai does not gunakan V (verb) pertama)
.Contoh 2 : We play football in the yard------ We do not play football in the yard.
(ingat untuk you, we, they dan I gunakan V pertama dan negatipnya dengan do not V pertama)
Soal : Supply the correct Present Form in the following blanks:
a.       Katy ( speak) English everyday.
b.      We (eat) humbergers at school.
c.       This machine (work) well.
Kunci: a. speaks.  B eat.    C. works
2
PRESENT CONTINUOUE TENSE



Merupakan pernyataan bahwa kegiatan sedang berlangsung, ket waktu al dng now
He , she , it ‘ to be dengan is plus V ing , you we they dengan are dan I dengan am plus V ing.
Kalimat negatipnya tinggal menambah not di belakang to be
Contoh 1. : Adin is reading a book in the room now.--- Adin is not reading......
Contoh 2 : Dosi and I are preparing dinner at the moment--- Dosi and I are not ......
Soal : : Supply the  present continuous form of the verbs in brackets.
a.       The tourists (visit) the museum.
b.      I (sleep) at this moment
c.       Rika (make) a dress now.
Kunci : a. are visiting  b. am sleeping   c. is making
3
PAST  TENSE



Untuk mengungkapkan kejadian yang sudah berlangsung- sudah le- pas. Ket waktu al dengan last, ago dsb.
Semua subyek menggunakan  V bentuk ke dua dan negatipnya dengan did not namun harus diingat bahwa setelah did not V harus kembali ke V pertama.
Contoh 1 : Putri went to the movie last night---- Putri (she) did not  go to .....
(lihat bahwa setelah did not menjadi go tidak went atau gone atau going)
Contoh 2: They were very tired after the meeting.--- They were not very tired after...
( yang menunjukkan past tense adalah were , maka gunakan were not/ weren’t)
Soal : Change into past tense.- change the verbs of time to yesterday.
a.       They study English everyday.
b.      She visits her parents every week.
c.       We attend a meeting every week.
Kunci : a. studied- yesteray.   B. visited-  last week.   C. attended – a weak ago
4.
PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE



Menunjukkan kegiatan sedang berlangsung pada waktu lampau ketika itu ada juga kejadian  lain yang waktunya lebih pendek juga berlangsung. Kegianan yang berlangsung lebih lama dengan past continuous T yang lebih pendek dengan past tense. Ciri ada kata while atau when.
Contoh 1. : He was studying English when my friend called me.
( was studying English lebih lama (pakai pasr Cont T) dari pada my friend called (pakai Past Tense).
Contoh 2. : We were still preparing the lesson while the bell rang
(he, she,it dan I menggunakan was sedang You We They dengan were- lihat tyhe bell rang –dengan past tense karena waktu ;lebih pendek)
Soal : Put the verbs in the sentences in the correct Past Continuous Tense.
a.       The boy ... (fall) while he ... (ride) a bicycle
b.      As we ... (get) there, they .... (have) their dinner.
c.       When I .... (leave) home, It.... (rain) very hard.
Kunci : a. fell- was rode   b. got-  were having  c.left -  was raining
5.
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE



Untuk mengungkapkan bahwa perbuatan sudah selesai dilakukan, biasa menggunakan keterangan waktu since maupun for.
Formulasinya dengan menggunakan has untuk he, she dan it  dan menggunakan have untuk I, you, we dan they plus V 3 (bentuk ke tiga).
Contoh I. : The teacher has explained for two hours--- the teacher has not explained .
( The teacher = he/she, maka menggunakan has sedang negatipnya tinggal menambah not di belakang has tanpa mengubah kata kerjanya)
Contoh 2 : The students have done the project since January- The students have not ..
( The students = they/jamak, maka meggunakan have, negatipnya sama spt di atas.
Soal : Put the verbs in the sentences in the correct Present perfect tense.
a.       We (not meet) each other for a long time.
b.      I (not withdrawn) any money from the bank for months.
c.       You (keep) this check for three months.
Kunci : a. haven’t met.. b. haven’t withdawn  c. have kept.
6.
PAST PERFECT TENSE



Untuk menyatakan ada dua atau lebih  perbuatan yang telah diselesaikan pada waktu lampau yang saling berkait dan satu perbuatan menjadi syarat untuk perbuatan lain.Keterangan waktu menggunakan before maupun after.
Contoh 1: She had done her homework before she watched TV.
(Antara mengerjakan pekerjaan rumah dan melihat Tv lebih lama mengerjakan PR)
Contoh 2: I went to the beach after my father had given me permission .
( ijin ayah sebagai syarat /mendahului sebelum ke pantai, dua kalimat tersebut sama sama bentuk past.)
Soal : Put the verbs in the sentences in the correct Past Perfect Tense
a.       She (is) home when I (visit) her.
b.      My father (lock) the door when we (come).
c.       She (write) a letter to him before I (do).
Kunci : a. had been – visited. B. had locked – came   c. had written -  did
7.
PRESENT FUTURE TENSE



Untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang akan dilakukan pada masa mendatang/ belum dilakukan , keterangan waktunya antara lain dengan tomorrow, tonoght, next day next.... dsb.
Formulasinya bisa dengan will atau  to be going to diikuti V1 (kata kerja bentuk 1)
Contoh 1: I will give a present to my sister tonight = I am going to give a present.....
(will bisa diganti is (to be) going to dan diikuti V1 /kata kerja bentuk pertama)
Contoh 2: Tina will buy me pizza tomorrow = Tina is going to buy me .......
Soal : Put the verbs in the sentences in the correct  future tense.
a.She (go) to Yogyakarta tomorrow
b. They (have) breakfast at the restaurant.
c. I (make) a cace in the kitchen.
Kunci :  a. will go   b.   will have    c.  will make
8.
PRESENT FUTURE PERFECT TENSE



Untuk mengungkapkan perbuatan yang diperkirakan atau diarencanakan pada kurun waktu tertentu di masa depan sudah akan terlaksana. Keterangan waktu yang biasa digunakan adalah by the end of...., by......
Formulasinya dengan will have plus V 3 (kata kerja bentuk ke tiga)
Contoh 1: The author will have written his new novel by the end of this month.
(Pengarang itu akan sudah (perkiraan/rencana) menyelesaikan novelnya pada akhis bulan depan.).
Soal : Put the verbs in the sentences in the correct Present future tense.
a.They (discover) our escape at down tomorrow.
b. We (go) along way by then.
c. She probably  (write) to them by next week.
Kunci ; a.will have discovered.   B. will have gone  c. willhave written.
9
MODALS



Modal atau Modal Auxilliary berarti kata kerja bantu antara lain terdiri dari will, shall,can,may, must dan should.
1.Will ( bisa berarti akan)= Toni will arrive soon
Will ( penawaran/permohonan halus/=maukah)= will you open the window?
2. Shall ( menawarkan halus)= Shall I open the window, it is hot
    Shall ( akan/ bermaksud=merencanakan)= I shall go with him to night.
3. CAN ( ability= mampu, dapat, sanggup)= She can play the piano very well.
    CAN ( Askibg help= dapakah)= Can yaou show me the way to the post office?
    CAN (asking permition = minta ijin)= Can I borrow your pen?
4. MAY( asking permition = mita ijin halus)= May I go home now?
    MAY( possibility= mungkin) = I may come late to the meeting tonight.
5.MUST (necessity= harus= wajib , umum- have to= sunah) We must obey the law
   MUST (conclution = pasti)= Tom has several big houses, he must be rich now.   
6. SHOULD ( giving suggestion= seharusnya)= You look tired, you should take a rest
    SHOULD ( =ought to for duty = harus untuk tugas)= You should obey the school rules. 
Soal : Fill in the blanks with the modals.
a.       Tuti is studying hard now .She ....... have a test now.
b.      You are sick, Dewi. You ...... see the doctor soon.
c.       It’s dark here ...... I swich on the light,  sir?
Kunci : a. will .b. must   c.   can.
10
PRONOUNS




SUBYEK (di depan)
OBYEK (setelah kt kerja/predikat)
POSSESIVE ADJ (Sebelum kata benda)
POSSESIVE PRONOUNS (di akhir kalimat)
REFLEXIVE (biasanya setelah kata by)
I
ME
MY
MINE
MYSELF
YOU
YOU
YOUR
YOURS
YOURSELF
THEY
THEM
THEIR
THEIRS
THEMSELVES
WE
US
OUR
OURS
OURSELVES
HE
HIM
HIS
HIS
HIMSELF
SHE
HER
HER
HERS
HERSELF
IT
IT
ITS
ITS
ITSELF





Soal : Complete the answers by using the correct pronouns.
a.       Each dog has ......own food and water
b.      Anton and I do ......homework together.
c.       Both boys prepare ......lesson well.
Kunci : a.its.  b. our   c.  their













11
RELATIVE CLAUSES



WHO = pengganti orang sebagai subyek (orangnya sudah tertentu , sebelum to be/verb)- G. Washington who became President of USA never told lie.
WHOM= pengganti orang sebagai obyek ( orangnya belum tertentu , terletak sebelum kata ganti orang)= Nina whom I like her is a nice girl.
WHOSE= pengganti milik (terletak sebelum kata benda, setelah orang)= Mr. Brown hose has a big house is very old
WHICH=pengganti kata benda (setelah barang, sebelum kata ganti orang/kata kerja)= The book which I read yesterday was a lovely story.
Soal : Combine the sentences by using the correct relative clause
Contoh : The woman is my aunt. The woman is waving her hand = The woman who is waving her hand is my aunt.
Ombine the sentences by using who whose or which
a.I don’t like the food. The food tasted too hot.
b. Where are the trousers? The trousers need to be taken in
c. The employees have to retire. The employees are 55 years old.
Kunci : a. I don’t  like the food which taste too hot. B.Where are the trousers which need to be taken in.   C. The employees who are 55 years old have to retire.

12
QUESTION TAG



1.      DENGAN TO BE : (Kiri positip kanan negatip. Kanan positip kiri negatip.)= I am a student, aren’t I. I am not interested in painting, am I?
2.      DENGAN AUXIALLIARIES: Kiri positip kanan negatip. Kanan positip kiri negatip) = You didn’t hear me, did you? I can hardly  hear you , can’t I?
3.      TANPA TO BE/ AUXILLIARIES/ DENGAN KATA KERJA( lihat tensenya, present tense dengan do/ does dan past tense dengan did. Kalimat kiri dan kanan koma berlawanan positip negatipnya)= He works very hard, doesn”he? I studied hard, didn’t I? I really come late, do I ? (sebelum koma bercitra negatip)
4.      PERINTAH/ PERMINTAAN  (gunakan will dan selalu positip)  Stand up, will you? Don’t smoke here, will you?
Soal :Complete the following sentences with the correct form of tag endings.
a.       The students understood the lesson well,.......
b.      You always do your homework,....
c.       She has read the book,.....
Kunci : 1.didn’t they ?.  2. Don’t you ?   3. Hasn’t she?

13
SPECIAL VERBS



1.      TRANSITIVE (Kata kerja yang butuh obyek contoh show=memperlihatkan, memperlihatkan apa? Untuk yang berkaitan dengan panca indra tidak dengan to seperti feel, see, let, have, hear, help, make, watch = He let me go. Sedangkan lainnya dengan to seperti ;advice, allow, ask, beg, expewct, forbid, hate, help, request, remiond, prefer, permit, intend, invite, instruct, ahow, tell, want wish, urge,= She told me to obey that rule). Formulasinya : SUBYEK + SV+ O+TO INV atau SUBYEK + SV + O + INF
2.      INTRANSITIVE (kata kerja yang tidak memerlukan obyek sudah jelas maksudnya seperti try = mencoba tak perlu mencoba apa. Yang lain : agree, hate, beg, arrange, continue, ask forget, like, fall, mean, plan, hope, refuse, swear, prefer, want, begin, wish, seem,help, attempt, hesitate, promise, love, remember, refuse, swear, start, decide, determine, purpose, need, intent, try,  dsb contoh : I refuse to give him some money.) Formulasinya : SUBYEK+ SV+ TO INV
3.      VERB FOLLOWED BY V ing( Ada beberapa kata kerja yang selalu diikuti kata kerja bentuk ing  umumnya tentang perasaan dan cenderung menjadi gerund. FORMULASINYA : SUBYEK + SV + V ing Contoh : The children like swimming. Kata kerja tersebut al : enjoy, start, go, remember, keep, stp, intend, allow, avoid, advise, consider, postpone, hate, propose, mean, try, finish, mind, imagine, anticipate, admit, regret, delay, deny, begin, prefer dsb.
Soal :Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
a.       I want her (learn) English
b.      I advised him (ask) the police.
c.       I expect him (come) at 7
Kunci : 1. To learn.   2  asking    3.   To come.
14
ELLIPTICAL CONSTRUCTION



1.      TOO / SO ( untuk pernyataan + artinya juga : I am late and you are too. We can swim and so can you – perhatikan susunannya bukan so you can atau can you so.
2.      NEITHER/ EITHER (Untuk pernyataan -/ negatip artinya juga: I don’t like tea and my girl freind either- pacarku juga tidak suka.  Ida won’t be there and neither will Toni = ida tidak akan kesana begitu juga Toni = tidak ke sana juga.
Soal : Joint these sentences using elliptical construction.
a.       He is hungry. I am hungry (too)
b.      She left the party early . We left the parrty early ( so)
c.       She had applied for the job. I had applied for ghe job (too)
Kunci : a.He is hungry and I am too. b. She left the party early and so did we c. She had applied for the job and I had too.
15
PREPOSITION



PREPOSITION adalah kata depan  seperti on, at, in, between dsb. She lives on Jalan Merdeka. She lives at Jalan Srikaya No 11. We live in Kendal ( bila pakai nomor gunakan at bila tak pakai nomor atau hanya jalan maka gunakan on dan bila hanya disebut kotanya gunakan in..
She will go to Jakarta on Sunday.     She was born in November.
She was born on Januari 1 st , 1994.        She stays at home all day.
She always goes to her office at 7 AM             She will stay in USA in Summer.
She stands among her students .          She sits between  Endi and Adin   .
Soal :Fill in the blanks with the correct preposition .
a.       Will you lend me your pen ...... a few minutes
b.      I will wait here for him ...... 3 o’clock
c.       It has been raining steadily ........ yesterday.
Kunci : a. for.    B.   at.    C. since    
16
CONJUNCTION



1.      And, also, besides, more over, furthermore, indeed adalah untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat yang setaraf.= Adin studies English adn Dosi studies Biology.
2.      But, however, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand,in spite of untuk menunjukkan kalimat yang satu dengan yang lainnya bertentangan/kontras.= Endang was studying hard for the test , but Tuty  was playing the quitar.
3.      So, therefore, consequently, thus, untuk menunjukkan hasil/ kesimpulan =Andri is never absent from school , thus he makes alot of progress.
4.      For , since, because, untuk menunjukkan alasan.= Many foreign tourist come to Indonesia, because, we have beautiful views.
5.       Or and nor untuk menunjukkan alternatip  piloihan = Is Toni teaching English or mathematic?
Soal: Combine two sentences by using the conjunction in brackets.
a.       Petrolium is used as fuel, It is useful in a fibred industry(not only.. but also)
b.      The boys are not allowed to leave the class. The girls are not allowed to leave class (neither ...nor).
c.       We can take a taxi to get to the airport. We can take a bus to get to air port ( ....either... or).
Kunci :a Petrolium is used not only as fuel but also useful in a fibred industry.
b. Neither The boys nor the girls are allowed to leave the class.
c. We can take  either a taxi or a bus  to get to the airport.
17
CAUSATIVE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE



1.      ACTIVE SENTENCES (saya perintahkan ...../.... disuruh  untuk): SUBYEK+ HAVE+ OBJECT+ INVINITIVE = He has me mail the letter  (Ia memerinahkan saya/ disuruh untuk memposkan surat).  Atau : 0BYEK+ GET+ OBYEK+ TO INVINITIVE. = I got you to prepare lunch (saya perintahkan kepadamu/disuruh untuk mempersiapkan makan siang.
2.      PASSIVE SENTENCES (memerintahkan agar/minta di..):  SUBYEK+ HAVE/GET+ OBYEK+VERB 3 = Mother had the clothes washed ( Ibu memerntah agar /minta dicucikan pakaiannya). Father gets a glass of  tea made ( Ayah memerintah agar/minta dibuatkan segelas teh.)
Soal : Change into causative passive sentences
a.      I will get him to turn off the radio.
b.      We finally got her to tell the truth.
c.       I have her take her medicine.
Kunci : a. I will get the radio turned off.
b. We finally got the truth told.
c.I have her medicine taken.
18
REPORTED SPEECH (direct/Indirect speech)



1.      Tenses: PRESENT  TENSE MENJADI PAST TENSE, PAST TENSE MENJADI PAST PERFECT TENSE  , PRESENT PERFECT MENJADI PAST PERFECT.
2.      KETERANGAN : here- there. THIS ke THAT. THESE ke THOSE.
3.      COMMAND: He asked me :” take my shoes.”  HE ASKED ME TO TAKE HIS SHOES. She said : “ Don’t go” SHE SAID NOT TO GO
4.      STATEMENT : Ani said : “ I go home at 6”. ANI SAID THAT SHE WENT HOME AT 6. Anto said:” I will come on time “. ANTO SAID THAT HE WOULD COME ON TIME.
5.      YES/NO QUESTION: He asked Ani:” are you sick?” HE ASKED ANI IF SHE WAS SICK. I asked him :” Do you have a pen ?” I ASKED HIM IF HE HAD A PEN.
6.      QUESTION WORD: Mother asked me:” Where have you been ?”MOTHER ASKED ME WHERE I HAD BEEN.  Atun Asked Toni :” Where are you going ?” ATUN ASKED TONI WHERE HE WAS GOING.
Soal : Change the following sentences into indirect speech
a.      The woman says : “I must go to he bank now.”
b.      She asked me :”What did you study?”
c.       The manager said:” I’ll rise your salary.”
Kunci : a. The woman says  that she  must go to he bank then.
b. She asked me what I had studied. C. The manager said that he would salary my salary.


19
NOUN CLAUSE



1.      AS A SUBJECT : Where he lives is still a mystery.What happened made her cry?
2.      AS AN OBJECT: I remember what his name is.  I worried about how my sister was
3.      AS A COMPLEMENT: That is where she lives.   My problem was when she told to her father.
Soal : complete the sentences by using noun clause.
a.       He knew .... to solve the problem.
b.      People know ..... always be ready to help him
c.       This is the place ... I found the wallet
Kunci : a. how. B. who    c. where.
20
INTENSIFIER (too and enough)



1.      TOO: terletak sebelum kata sifat = The tea is too hot for me. THE ROOM IS VERY DARK. I CAN’T READ THE NOVEL. The room is too dark to read the novel.
2.      ENOUGH: terletak setelah kata sifat = They are patient enough to wait for me. THE MAN IS VERY STRONG. HE CAN MOVE THE HEAVY BAGS EASILY. = The man is strong enough to move the heavy bags easily.
Soal : Fill in the blank with too or enough at he bracketed words.
a.       The car was not (large) to accomodate all of us.
b.      My brother is (young) to go to school.
c.       You are not (old) to understand these thinks.
Kunci : a. large enough  b. too young    c.   old enough
21
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (Kalimat bersyarat)



1.      TYPE 1.(akan terjadi bila syarat terpenuhi): WILL+VERB+IF+ VERB 1 = I will buy a new bicycle if I have much money.
2.      TYPE 2.(bisa terjadi bisa tidak). WOULD + VERB 1 + IF + VERB 2 = I would buy a new bicycle if I had much money.
3.      TYPE 3 : (kondisi tidak mungkin terjadi/ hanya berhandai-handai.).WOULD HAVE + VERB 3 + IF + HAD = VERB 3. = I would have bought a new bicycle if I had had much money
Soal : Change the following sentences into two different kinds of conditional sentences.
a.       Will you come if she invite you ?
b.      She would refuse to speak to him unless he apologized to her first.
c.       If you are careful to drive your car , you won’t get the accident.
Kunci: a.1. Will you come if she invited you? A.2. Will you have come if she had invited you?
b.1. She will refuse to speak to him unless he apologizes to her first
b.2. She will refuse to speak to him unless he had apologized to her first
c.1. If you were careful to drive your car , you wouldn’t get the accident.
c.2. If you had been careful to drive your car , you wouldn’t get the accident

22
GERUND (kata kerja yang dijadikan benda)



1.      SUBYEK (berada di paling depan dari sebuah kalimat )= Speaking is very difficult for me.
2.      OBYEK ( berada setelah predikat/kata kerja)= I hate coming late.
3.      PREPOSITION ( setelah preposisi)= I am interested in gardening.
4.      COMPLEMEN (setelah to be ) = My hobby is swimming.
5.      COMPOUND ( kumpulan kata sebagai penjelas)= I have a swimming pool at home.
Soal: Betulkan kalimat di bawah ini
a. walk in the morning is healthy.
b. You must stop smoke.
c. His free time is climb the mountains
d.He is very good at speak English.
e. We have breakfast in the dine room.
Kunci :
a. walking in the morning is healthy. b. You must stop smoking. c. His free time is climbing the mountains. d.He is very good at speaking English..e. We have breakfast in the dining room.

23
PASSIVE VOICE (di ......



Rumus umum: TO BE + V 3 (To be plus Kata kerja bentuk ke tiga).
1.Present Tense : S + TO BE + V 3
2.PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE :  S + TO BE + BEING + V 3
3. Present perfect tense : S + HAVE/HAS+ BEEN+ V3
4. PRESENT FUTURE TENSE : S + SHALL/WILL+ BE + V 3
5. Modal : S + CAN , MAY MUST + BE + V 3.
Contoh : Mutia buys a book --- A book is bought by Mutia.
Mutia is buying a book ------ A book is being bought by Mutia.
Mutia bought a book ------- A book was bought by Mutia.
Mutia has bought a book ------ A book has been bought by Mutia.
Mutia will buy a book ----- A book will be bought by Mutia
Soal: buatlah ke bentuk passive:
a.we will complete the work
b. She is going to send the cable
c. The teacher teaches English in our class
Kunci : a.The work will be completed. B. The cable is going to be sent tomossow.c. English is taught in our class.

24
PREFERENCE



1.      Like .....better than.........
I like tea better than coffee
2.      Prefer ........to..........
I prefer tea to coffee
3.      Would rather ........... than........
I would rather have tea than coffee
Soal : Change prefer to would rather: Example:
          I prefer to wait outside : I would rather wait out side
a.       He prefers to invite all of his close friends
b.      We prefer to spend the vacation in the village.
c.       They prefer to walk to school.
d.      Kunci : a. He would rather  invite all of his close friends. B. We would rather spend the vacation in the village. C. They would rather walk to school